A Review of Waste Management Technologies Towards a Circular Economy in the Philippines
Circular economy (CE) refers to the production and consumption of goods through closed loop material flows that internalize environmental externalities linked to virgin resource extraction and the generation of waste. CE has not materialized in the Philippines since the implementation of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act in 2000. Several research studies have already been conducted focusing on the various aspects related to solid waste management. However, there is paucity of the available information related to waste management technologies that can stir the circular economy in the country. This study assessed the science, technology, and innovation on waste management in the Philippines within a ten-year period from 2009 to 2019. Content analysis was done on the research conducted and technologies generated to assess the role of science, technology, and innovation on waste management. Results revealed that several studies mainly focused on waste characterization, reuse, recycle, reduce or 3Rs, policy development and implementation, brand audits, and public and health effects of plastic wastes. Most of the studies conducted were quantitative in nature. On generated technologies, most of the reports focused on refuse-derived-fuel, vermin-composting, gravity-driven Materials Recovery Facility (MRF), bulb eater machine, and plastic bricks. Despite the annual increase in waste generation, waste management still receives poor attention from the government. Thus, achieving a circular economy will take time in the country.